Combat Robots 500g (1lb) (NEW)

Combat Robots Rules 500g (1lb)


1. Definition of the Combat Robot Match

1.1. Definition

Two robots compete in a head-to-head match following the basics of boxing. Robots are teleoperated. Like boxing, the robots are given three full minutes for a round, in which either one of the robots is knocked out, and 3 judges decide the winner. Most anything goes in terms of weapons, excluding water and electrical tasers.


2. Requirements for Robots

2.1. General Robot Specifications


2.2. Robot construction specifications

A. All participants build and operate robots at their own risk. Robot fights are inherently dangerous. There is no regulation that can cover all the dangers involved. Please be careful not to hurt yourself or others when building, testing and competing.

B. If you have a robot or weapon design that does not fit within the categories established in these rules or is in any way ambiguous or borderline, please contact the organization of this event. We encourage safe innovation, but if you catch event staff exploiting a loophole in the rules, your robot may be disqualified before it can compete.

C. The event will have safety inspections. These inspections have the power to allow or prevent participation in the event. As a builder you are obliged to disclose all operating principles and potential dangers to inspection personnel.

D. Essential safety rules: Failure to comply with any of the following rules may result in disqulification or worse, injury.

          a. Control transmitters cannot be activated at or near the event for any purpose without obtaining explicit permission from the referees.

          b. Proper activation and deactivation of robots is critical. Robots should only be activated within the combat space, in test areas, or with the express        consent of the referees.

          c. All robots must be capable of being COMPLETELY deactivated, including movement and weaponry, in less than 60 seconds by manual disconnection.

          d. All robots not in an official test space or area must be raised or locked so that the wheels cannot cause movement if the robot is turned on. Out of control robots are very dangerous.

          e. Locking Mobile Devices: Weapons that can cause damage or injury must have a clearly visible locking device installed at all times when not in the combat area. Locking devices must be painted neon orange or another high visibility color. Locking devices must be capable of stopping or preventing dangerous movement of the weapon.

          f. Weapon safety pins must be in place when power is applied to the robot during the power-up procedure.

          g. All builders are expected to follow basic safety practices when working on robots in the testing area. Please remain alert and aware of your neighbors in the testing area and of people passing by.


2.3. Mobility

All robots must have easily observable and controlled mobility to compete. The movement categories are as follows:

A. Rolling: they can be wheels, chains or the robot itself.

B. With legs: These robots are defined as those that have legs and these can be acted independently, that is, one leg can move horizontally or vertically without altering the rest of the legs.

C. Repeaters.

D. Gyroscopic: those that use the gyroscopic effect for the movement of the robot.

E. Hovercrafts.

Jumps are allowed. The robot is not allowed to fly by any method.


2.4. Robot control requirements

A. Robots must be radio controlled, or use an approved system as described bellow. The allowed frequency is 2.4GHz.

B. Control other than wireless is not permitted.

C. Radio system restrictions:

          a. For all robots with active weapons, radio systems that can stop the movement of the robot and weapons are necessary.

          b. Robots must use a digitally encoded radio system. With linked transmitter and receiver. This means that no transmitter operating on the same frequency can connect to the receiver, nor can your transmitter send signals to a receiver other than yours.

          c. Homemade radio system, or a control system not contemplated in the rules are not allowed. 

          d. It is not mandatory to use separate power switches for the radio receiver, but it is recommended.


2.5. Autonomy

The robot is not allowed to perform actions automatically.


2.6. Batteries and power supplies

A. Only batteries that do not spill or spray any of their contents when damaged or inverted are permitted. The permitted batteries are: NiCad, NiMH, dry cells, AGM, Li lon or LiPo.

B. All electrical power that powers weapons must be able to be disconnected manually (switch or removable connection). The use of a mechanical switch is mandatory.

C. Every effort should be made to prevent the battery terminals from shorting and causing a battery fire.

D. All robots must have a clearly visible light indicating that the main battery is connected.


2.7. Pneumatics

A. Examples of pneumatic systems:

          a. CO2 systems

          b. Compressed air systems

B. If your robot has pneumatic mechanisms, contact the referees to prequalify your robot before the event.

C. Pneumatic systems can only contain non-flammable and non-reactive gases (CO2, Nitrogen and compressed air are the most common).

D. You must have a safe way to fill it out.

E. All components must be securely mounted on the robot, paying special attention to valves and armature, so that they are not damaged.


2.8. Hydraulics

If your robot has hydraulic mechanisms, contact the referees to prequalify your robot before the event.


2.9. Internal combustion engines and liquid fuels

Internal combustion engines are not permitted at this challenge.


2.10. Springs and flywheels (rotating bars, discs, etc.)

A. Any flywheel or similar kinetic energy storage device must not be activated in any way outside the combat area.

B. All springs, flywheels, and kinetic energy storage devices or similar must return to a safe position upon loss of radio contact or power supply to the robot in less than 60 seconds.


2.11. Prohibited weapons and materials

The following weapons and materials are absolutely prohibited:

A. Weapons intended to cause invisible damage to the other robot. This includes but is not limited to:

          a. Electric weapons.

          b. RF signal blocking.

          c. Permanent EMF fields or electromagnets that affect the electronics of other robots.

          d. Weapons or defenses that completely stop the combat of both (or more) robots. This includes nets, tape, ropes and other entanglement devices.

B. Weapons that require significant cleaning or damage to the combat area and that require repair for subsequent encounters. This includes but is not limited to:

          a. Liquid weapons. Robots also cannot contain liquid that could spill when the robot is superficially damaged.

          b. Foams and liquefied gases.

          c. Powders, sand, ball bearings and other similar elements.

          d. Projectiles.

C. Heat, fire and explosions are prohibited as weapons. This includes, but is not limited to the following:

          a. Explosives or flammable solids, such as cartridges, gunpowder, firecrackers, flares, lighters, flamethrowers, etc.

D. Light or smoke weapons that impair the visualization of the robots by participants, judges or spectators. This includes, but is not limited to the following:

          a. Smoke weapons.

          b. Laser, strobe or bright lights that could blind the opponent.

E. Hazardous materials are prohibited from being used anywhere on the robot where they may come into contact with humans.


3. Combat characteristics

3.1 Combat Area Specifications

A. Arena dimensions 200cm x 200cm, with the floor at about 100cm off the ground. The hight of the arena is 100cm

B. 8mm double layer polycarbonate on the inside walls.

C. 3cm wood floor.

D. 8mm polycarbonate roof.

E. Aluminium profile frame 40x40mm and 40x80mm

F. 5mm steel protections attached to the walls of the arena. There is no space between the arena wall and the steel protection plate.

3.2. Course of the competition

Important!!! One person can be operator for maximum 2 robots !!!

A. The duration of the fight is 3 minutes.

B. The match ends when a robot is declared KO or after 3 minutes the referees will decide the winner.

C. Frequency of combats. There will be at least 20 minutes between fights for the same robot. Although we recommend that you have two batteries so that, if you do not have to make repairs to the robot, the frequency of combat can be speeded up.

D. Releases. The fight will stop if the robots remain hooked on each other for more than 10 seconds to separate them.

E. Grabbing or lifting. Robots can perform grabs or lifts, but no longer than 10 seconds. In the event of not obeying the referee's order to release or stop the lift (as long as the robots are not hooked) the robot that performs the grab or lift will be declared the loser.

F. Withdrawal. Retreat is allowed in the middle of combat. The operator will indicate it using his button and the fight will stop instantly. The opposing robot will win the fight automatically.

G. KO. In the event that a robot has ceased its movement in a controlled manner, the referee will begin a 10-second countdown. In the event that during this time he is not able to demonstrate a translational movement, he will be declared the loser by KO. Controlled translational movement is understood to be the set of movements that allow the robot to follow a linear path.

H. If during the countdown the robot demonstrates controlled translational movement, or in the event that the opposing robot attacks, the countdown will be stopped and the fight will continue. This means that a “stopped” robot will not be counted down if its opponent continues attacking, and the fight will not end unless the combat time runs out or the “stopped” robot retreats.

I. A robot with one side of its motion system stopped will not be counted down if it demonstrates controlled translational motion.

J. In the case of a simultaneous KO, the robots will be placed in their original orientation and:

          a. If both can demonstrate controlled movement, the match will resume.

          b. If only one can demonstrate controlled movement, will be declared the winner of the match.

          c. If both cannot demonstrate movement, the judges will decide the winner.

          d. If a robot's battery is exposed the referee may decide to declare a technical KO for safety.

K. Type of elimination. On the day of the event and depending on the number of participants, the organization will decide the type of eliminatory, among which are:

         a. League. Each robot faces all robots. Whoever has the most wins is the winner. If there is a tie, the one who won the fight between the finalists wins.

         b. Pyramid. Fights are held in pairs and the winner goes to the next phase until there is a winner. The loser is directly eliminated.

L.  Each team has the responsibility to follow the starting grid (schedule), displayed on the website and in the team’s room. PLEASE DON’T BE LATE, WE WILL NOT WAIT!!!

If you are called to play and you don't come in 5 minutes the robot is desqulified !!!

M. Each team will have one operator and one assistant. Only the operator and the assistant are allowed in the waiting area or game area. The rest of the team will remain in the room or will follow the game from the audience. For the operator and the assistant it is mandatory to wear gloves and protective eyewear. The protective gear it mandatory to be wear in the game area until the arena si closed. The protective gear will be check at homologation.

N. The homologation is made every time for the robots which will follow at start. They will remain in the competition area, in the waiting area. The teams will leave this area only if the referee agrees.

O. All the teams will stay in the room reserved for them (the room will be marked in the area map from the team’s folder). Each challenge will have a room. The teams can leave the room only when they are called to the competition area. Each team will be called by a competition official, when they need to go to the waiting area which is near the competition area (details in appendix 1).


3.3. Homologation

Each team will have to pass the homologation stage, in order to participate with theirs robots in the competition.

At the time of inspection, show up with your complete robot (with battery and radio) so that it can be inspected.

The stages of homologation process are:

At the begining of the competition 

A. It will be checked if the number exists on the outer casing of the robot. 

B. A photo will be taken to every robot in which the numer will be visible.

C. Weighing the robot on a digital scale. The maximum value must be 454g.

D. Checking the operation of the remote control.

E. the referees can ask you about all the features of the robot to check its safety.

Before every match

A. Weighing the robot on a digital scale. The maximum value must be 454g.

B. It will be checked if the number exists on the outer casing of the robot.

C. It will be check if the operator and assistant have the protective gear

D. Checking the operation of the remote control

After homologation the first 4 teams will remain in the waiting area, near the game area. The rest of the teams will return to the room assigned for them. 


4. Start, Stop, Resume, End a Match

4.1. Robot Placing

A. Robot activation. The following procedure will be followed

          a. First, the robot will be placed inside the combat area so that it is oriented towards the inside, with its weapon also oriented towards the inside.

          b. Weapon protections are removed if they have them.

          c. The radio station or transmitter turns on.

          d. The robot power is connected.

          e. Weapon pins or safeties are removed.

          f. The combat area is closed.

          g. No movement or test runs are permitted while the combat area is open.


4.2. Start

A. Mobility test and start of combat

          a. When the combat area closes, you have 30 seconds to test the operation of the weapon and movements of the robot, while the robot is placed in its starting position.

          b. the referee will ask the participants if they are ready, and when both agree the fight will begin.

B. The referee starts every match by giving a audio start signal. As soon as the signal is given the operators can start movinf the robots. 


4.3. Stop, Resume

End of combat

          a. Once the referee ends the fight, the robots must stop and de-energize their weapons, then they must return to their starting positions.

          b.  Judges may request demonstration of the operation of the robot's movement and/or its weapon.

          c. The movement demonstration can be performed while the robot returns to its combat start position.

          d. The weapon demonstration can be performed while the robot returns to its combat starting position by briefly applying power to the weapon, but without activating it at full speed.


4.4. End

Robot deactivation

          a. The robot's weapon is deactivated.

          b. The robot is driven (as far as possible) so that it is oriented towards the interior of the combat area. With his weapon also facing inwards.

          c. The combat area opens. From this moment on, no movement is allowed.

          d. The robot power is disconnected.

          e. The radio, station or transmitter is turned off.

          f. Weapon pins or safeties are installed.

          g. Weapon protections are installed if you have them.

          h. Once the two robots are ready, they leave the combat area.


4.5. Emergency deactivation

In case of emergency (for example robots on fire) the deactivation procedure does not apply. Below we try to describe the emergency procedure for possible situations.

A. One or more robots go out of control

          a. The operator or operators must turn off their transmitters to try to activate the security or failsafe system. If this works, and control is regained, the fight resumes.

          b. If uncontrolled behavior continues, the robot will be allowed to drain its batteries until it is safe to handle.

          c. If the runaway robot is functional, does not have a working weapon, and everyone agrees, the opponent may attempt to lift, flip, or lock the robot so that it is not mobile and can be safely disabled.

B. One robot on fire and the other mobile

          a. The mobile robot will move as far away as possible from the other robot and from the entrance to the combat area.

          b. All weapons will be de-energized and pointed away from the entrance to the combat area.

          c. Once the opening is not considered dangerous, the fire will be extinguished.

          d. Once extinguished, the mobile robot operator may remove it with the normal deactivation procedure.

C. One robot on fire and the other motionless

          a. The operator of the stationary robot will suppress the energy of his weapon.

          b. Once the opening is not considered dangerous, the fire will be extinguished.

          c. Once extinguished, the operator of the stationary robot may remove it with the normal deactivation procedure.

D. The two robots on fire

          a. As far as possible, the robots will be moved as far away as possible from the other robot and from the entrance to the combat area.

          b. To the extent possible, all weapons will be de-energized and pointed away from the entrance to the combat area.

          c. Once the opening is not considered dangerous, the fire will be extinguished.


5. Time of Match

5.1. Duration

One Match will be fought for a total of 3 minutes, starting and ending upon the judge's command.


6. Scoring

A robot is declared winner when:

A. In the event that a robot is trapped on top of the protective walls of the arena or between them and the outer ones, it will be declared KO and must disable its weapon.

B. The opposing robot gets damaged without being able to continue and the team’s representative announces it.

C. If a KO is declared.

D. After 3 minutes if no KO was declared, the refeee will declare the winner.

When judges' decision is called for to decide the winner, the following points will be taken into considerations:

a. Technical merits in movement and operation of a robot

b. Attitude of the players during the match


6.1. Repairs, modifications, unpredicted interruptions

From the moment a robot passes the homologation (and it is in the waiting area) until the match ends, no changes can be made to the robot and no breaks are allowed for any of the conditions below.

- No repairs are allowed during a match.
- No battery change or charge is allowed during a match
- If the robot damaged the fight will not stop. The robot must continue fighting until the match is over

A. The robot must start and finish the match without any modification and can not leave the competition area for any reason.

B. Battery change/charge, repairs or the replace of defective parts, can be made after the match is over until the next match involved.

C. If a robot gets broken during a match and can't continue, the match is won by the opponent robot. No repair is allowed.


6.2. Referees

A. There will be a person identified as the “main referee” at all times and will be in charge of communicating any final decision regarding the development of the competition and interpretation of the rules.

B. Other people may be identified as “assistant referee” and will assist the main referee in the tasks delegated to him or her.

C. The participant must always contact the main referee for any claim or clarification of the rules. Then, if the head referee deems it appropriate, he can redirect the participant to an assistant referee.

D. Final decisions are always made by the head referee.


7. Violations

7.1. Violations

Players performing any of the deeds described in Sections 2.2, 7.2, 7.3 or 7.4 shall be declared in violation of these rules.


7.2. Insults

A player who utters insulting words to the opponent or to the referee or puts voice devices in a robot to utter insulting words or writes insulting words on the body of a robot, or performs any insulting action, is in violation of these rules.


7.3. Protective gear and the safe area

It is considered serious misconduct in regulation:

A. The operator and/or assistant doesn’t wear the protective gear during a match.

B. The operator and/or the assistant don’t comply the indications of the referee.


7.4. Violations

A minor violation is punishable with a warning and is declared when:

A. Non-sports conduct includes but is not limited to:

          a. Contact after the end of the fight.

          b. Sabotage.

          c. Distraction of the opposing robot operator.

          d. Moves ahead of referee signal.

B. Performs the following deeds:

          a. Demand to stop the match without appropriate reasons.

          b. Take more than 30 seconds for weapon check, unless the judge announces a time extension.

          c. Take action of any kind which are contrary to the spirit of fair-play of the game.

          d. The operator and/or the assistant will leave the waiting area without announcing the official of the competition or the referee regarding the reason of leaving.

C. The first incident of unsportsmanlike conduct will result in a warning.

D. In the second incident the person responsible will automatically lose the fight.

E. In the case of a clear intention of non-sportsmanlike conduct, the robot operator will be disqualified for the entire event.


8. Penalties

8.1. Penalties

A. Players who violate these rules by performing the deeds described in Sections 2.2, 7.2, 7.3 and 7.4 shall lose the match. 

B. Each occasion of the violations described in Sections 7.4 shall be accumulated. 

C. The violations described in Article 7.4 shall be accumulated throughout one match


9. Declaring Objections

9.1. Declaring Objections

A. No objections shall be declared against the referees' decisions.

B. The operator of a team can present objections to the Committee, before the match is over, if there are any doubts in the exercising of these rules. If there are no Committee members present, the objection can be presented to the judge before the match is over.

C. The players can't touch or remove the robots from the ring after the fight is over until the judge gives them the sign. If the players touch or remove the robot before the judge gives the sign no objections can be raised. 


10. Flexibility of Rules

As long as the concept and fundamentals of the rules are observed, these rules shall be flexible enough to encompass the changes in the number of players and of the contents of matches. Modifications or abolition of the rules can be made by the local event organizers as long as they are published prior to the event, and are consistently maintained throughout the event.


11. Liability

A. Participating teams are always responsible for their own safety and for the safety of their robots and are liable for any accidents caused by their team members or their robots.

B. The RoboChallenge organization and the organizing team members will never be held responsible nor liable for any incidents and / or accidents caused by participating teams or their equipment.



Protective gear

1. Protective eyewear - glasses which offer lateral and frontal protection against minor mechanical shock with chips/particles projected with low speed. This kind of glasses can be wear on top of the eyeglasses and must have translucent lens, which will not affect the vision.

2. Gloves -  type of gloves that offer protection against mechanical shocks, flames, heat, humidity, cold, toxic waste.It will not be considered protective gear:



Team’s folder will have the following items:

  1. The numbers for each robotThe participations diplomas for the team members
  2. The badges for the team members
  3. Informations regarding the rooms reserved for the teams and the competition area map
  4. Promotional
  5. Explanation regarding how the groups are formed
  6. The map for the team’s room and the competition areas


Regulation based on: RoboGames: